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The Michigan Citizen

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Deconstructing Reconstruction

Children in elementary school often come home with the idea that the purpose of the Civil War was to end slavery, but if that were true why did it take Abraham Lincoln so long to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, and why was it less than universally popular in the Union states? If you see the movie “Lincoln,” you get a much fuller picture of the contingency of emancipation, and of the difficulty of passi ...

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Malcolm X: The Farce on Washington

In the midst of the media frenzy around the 1963 March on Washington, history will not absolve us if we ignore Malcolm’s description of the March as “the farce on Washington.” This is because the radical rejection of integration into a society that has reduced human beings to commodities is as much a part of black American history as the liberal struggle to be accepted into it. ...

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